Topic Overview What is hantavirus pulmonary syndrome? Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome HPS is a lung infection caused by viruses found in the saliva, urine, and droppings of some rodents. The illness is rare but can be deadly. People can become infected by:
GAUSA; email: Most hantavirus infections are caused by Sin Nombre virus, but cases of HPS caused by Bayou, Black Creek Canal, Monongahela, and New York viruses have been reported, and cases of domestically acquired hemorrhagic fever and renal syndrome caused by Seoul virus have also occurred.
Rarely, hantavirus infections result in mild illness that does not progress to HPS. Continued testing and surveillance of clinical cases in humans will improve our understanding of the etiologic agents involved and the spectrum of diseases.
The subsequent discovery of a new disease, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome HPS 1its etiologic agent, Sin Nombre virus SNV 2and its rodent reservoir, the deer mouse Peromyscus maniculatus 3were among the most prominent findings in a flood of new revelations about hantaviruses in the Americas.
Reliable and rapid diagnostic tests coupled with national surveillance created conditions whereby patients were tested, relevant information was gathered regarding rodent exposures, and potential rodent virus hosts were caught and tested.
Within a few years, 4 additional disease-associated hantaviruses indigenous to the United States were described: We now understand that several hantaviruses are endemic to North America, and infections in humans continue to occur where humans come into contact with infected rodents.
Through a review of literature and data from the hantavirus surveillance registry of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDCAtlanta, Georgia, USA, we have summarized the spectrum and distribution of human hantavirus infections in the United States through July 9, Hantaviruses family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus are rodent- and insectivore-borne viruses that are distributed in all continents except Antarctica 4.
It is not known if all hantaviruses cause disease in humans. Humans become infected through direct contact with infected rodents or inhalation of virus that has been shed in rodent excreta, blood, and saliva and then become aerosolized.
Old World hantaviruses that are known human pathogens e. Symptoms include fever; myalgia; and gastrointestinal, urinary, cerebral, and conjunctival hemorrhage.
Acute renal failure with oliguria caused by HFRS often lasts for several days before spontaneously resolving 5. Symptoms include a prodrome of fever, myalgia, and gastrointestinal symptoms followed by a rapid onset of pulmonary edema 167. Because cardiac insufficiency, leading to cardiac failure and death, can be prominent in severe cases, many investigators and clinicians refer to the disease as hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome 89.
Thrombocytopenia, left shift, and hemoconcentration are typical abnormal laboratory findings The only hantavirus species with evidence of human-to-human transmission is Andes virus, which is endemic to South America 5.
National surveillance for hantavirus infections in the United States began inand HPS became nationally notifiable in The clinical case definition, as approved by the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, includes fever and pulmonary symptoms bilateral diffuse interstitial edema, clinical diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome, or radiographic evidence of noncardiogenic pulmonary edema or unexplained respiratory illness resulting in death and an autopsy examination demonstrating noncardiogenic pulmonary edema without identifiable cause Clinically compatible HPS cases are confirmed by laboratory testing serologic analysis, PCR, or immunohistochemical analysis with results positive for hantavirus infection.
Laboratory confirmation is required for a case to be reported through the Nationally Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. As of July 9,there have been reported cases of HPS in 34 states Figureincluding 31 cases that occurred before and were retrospectively diagnosed from archived autopsy tissues or convalescent serum samples 15 — Because available serologic tests are broadly cross-reactive for all New World hantaviruses 1819virus identification must be performed by PCR with sequencing; this method requires acute specimens to be collected and transported to the laboratory frozen to preserve RNA for analysis.
This is not always possible, but attempts to collect specimens suitable for molecular analysis can greatly contribute to our further understanding of the hantaviruses causing disease in the United States.Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) are rodent-borne zoonoses, caused by members of the virus family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus, 1 and endemic in the Old World and New World, respectively.
Both syndromes are characterized by a long incubation period, febrile prodrome, systemic infection in association with microvascular endothelial cells, . Causes. Each type of hantavirus has a preferred rodent carrier. The deer mouse is the primary carrier of the virus responsible for most cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in North America.
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is found in North, Central and South America. It is an often fatal pulmonary disease. In the United States, the causative .
Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome is a rare but dangerous disease that was discovered from an outbreak in in the US and remains mostly limited to the Americas. Other hantavirus infections are found in Asia and Europe, but not often related to HPS or the Sin Nombre virus.
Annual United States Hantavirus Cases and Case-fatality; Hantavirus outside of the United States. Outside of North America, numerous individual cases and small clusters of Hantavirus cases have been reported in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Paraguay, Panama and Uruguay and Venezuela.
Topic Overview What is hantavirus pulmonary syndrome? Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a lung infection caused by viruses found in the saliva, urine, and droppings of some rodents.