Enlightenment era[ edit ] In eighteenth - and nineteenth-century Europesame-sex sexual behaviour and cross-dressing were widely considered to be socially unacceptable, and were serious crimes under sodomy and sumptuary laws.
The Rights of Man. The middle and late 19th century saw a number of issues take center stage, many of them issues we in the late 20th century would consider human rights issues.
They included slavery, serfdom, brutal working conditions, starvation wages, child labor, and, in the Americas, the "Indian Problem", as it was known at the time. In the United States, a bloody war over slavery came close to destroying a country founded only eighty years earlier on the premise that, "all men are created equal.
Neither the emancipated American slaves nor the freed Russian serfs saw any real degree of freedom or basic rights for many more decades, however. For the last part of the nineteenth and first half of the twentieth century, though, human rights activism remained largely tied to political and religious groups and beliefs.
Revolutionaries pointed at the atrocities of governments as proof that their ideology was necessary to bring about change and end the government's abuses.
Many people, disgusted with the actions of governments in power, first got involved with revolutionary groups because of this. The governments then pointed at bombings, strike-related violence, and growth in violent crime and social disorder as reasons why a stern approach toward dissent was necessary.
Neither group had any credibility with the other and most had little or no credibility with uninvolved citizens, because their concerns were generally political, not humanitarian. Politically partisan protests often just encouraged more oppression, and uninvolved citizens who got caught in the crossfire usually cursed both sides and made no effort to listen to the reasons given by either.
Nonetheless many specific civil rights and human rights movements managed to affect profound social changes during this time.
Labor unions brought about laws granting workers the right to strike, establishing minimum work conditions, forbidding or regulating child labor, establishing a forty hour work week in the United States and many European countries, etc.
The women's rights movement succeeded in gaining for many women the right to vote. National liberation movements in many countries succeeded in driving out colonial powers.
One of the most influential was Mahatma Ghandi's movement to free his native India from British rule. Movements by long-oppressed racial and religious minorities succeeded in many parts of the world, among them the U.
In a group of lawyers, journalists, writers, and others, offended and frustrated by the sentencing of two Portugese college students to twenty years in prison for having raised their glasses in a toast to "freedom" in a bar, formed Appeal for Amnesty, The appeal told the stories of six "prisoners of conscience" from different countries and of different political and religious backgrounds, all jailed for peacefully expressing their political or religious beliefs, and called on governments everywhere to free such prisoners.
It set forth a simple plan of action, calling for strictly impartial, non-partisan appeals to be made on behalf of these prisoners and any who, like them, had been imprisoned for peacefully expressed beliefs. The response to this appeal was larger than anyone had expected.
The one-year appeal grew, was extended beyond the year, and Amnesty International and the modern human rights movement were both born. The modern human rights movement didn't invent any new principles. It was different from what preceeded it primarily in its explicit rejection of political ideology and partisanship, and its demand that governments everywhere, regardless of ideology, adhere to certain basic principles of human rights in their treatment of their citizens.
This appealed to a large group of people, many of whom were politically inactive, not interested in joining a political movement, not ideologically motivated, and didn't care about creating "the perfect society" or perfect government.When most Americans think of the Civil Rights Movement, they have in mind a span of time beginning with the Supreme Court’s decision in Brown v.
Board of Education, which outlawed segregated education, or the Montgomery Bus Boycott and culminated in the late s or early s. The movement. Essay: The Civil Rights Movement There are have been many social movement that have captured my attention but the movement that I was most attracted to was the Civil Rights movement.
The reason I am so fascinated by the Civil Rights movement is because . If you are a teacher searching for educational material, please visit PBS LearningMedia for a wide range of free digital resources spanning preschool through 12th grade.
Civil rights definition, rights to personal liberty established by the 13th and 14th Amendments to the U.S. Constitution and certain Congressional acts, especially as applied to an individual or a minority group. See more.
Throughout the Fall of and into early , SNCC and COFO organizers and volunteers continue to work with dedicated local activists to provide a Freedom Movement presence in Issaquena County. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) social movements are social movements that advocate for LGBT+ people in society.
Social movements may focus on equal rights, such as the s movement for marriage equality, or they may focus on liberation, as in the gay liberation movement of the s and s.