His father was a sometime Prussian army officer who was a member of the landowning nobleman Junker class who provided the Prussian state with most of its army officers and administrators and his mother was a notably intelligent and well educated upper middle class commoner whose family, the Menckens, had included notable scholars and high state officials.
Otto von Bismarck Prime minister of Prussiaand founder and first chancellor of the German Empire. Once the empire was established, he actively and skillfully pursued pacific policies in foreign affairs, succeeding in preserving the peace in Europe for about two decades.
But in domestic policies his patrimony was less benign, for he failed to rise above the authoritarian proclivities of the landed squirearchy to which he was born.
Ferdinand was a typical member of the Prussian landowning elite. His mother, Wilhelmine Mencken, came from an educated bourgeois family that had produced a number of higher civil servants and academics.
She had been married to Ferdinand von Bismarck at age 16 and found provincial life confining. When her son Otto was seven, she enrolled him in the progressive Plamann Institute in Berlin and moved to the capital to be near him. The young Bismarck resented exchanging an easy life in the country for a more circumscribed life in a large city, where in school he was pitted against the sons of Berlin's best-educated families.
He spent five years at the school and went on to the Frederick William gymnasium for three years. He took his university entrance examination Abitur in Evidently Bismarck was a mediocre student who spent much of his time drinking with his comrades in an aristocratic fraternity.
After a brief stint at the university in Berlin, he entered the Prussian civil service, where he was plagued by boredom and an inability to adhere to the hierarchical principles of the bureaucracy. His mother's death in gave him the opportunity of resigning in order to come to the assistance of his father, who was experiencing financial difficulties in the management of his estate.
From to Bismarck lived the ordinary life of a Prussian country squire. Subsequently he romanticized these years on the land and wondered why he had abandoned an idyllic existence for the insecurities of a life in politics. This frequently expressed nostalgia may have been more guise than reality.
During this period he met and married Johanna von Puttkamer, the daughter of a conservative aristocratic family famed for its devout pietism. While courting Johanna, Bismarck experienced a religious conversion that was to give him inner strength and security.
A subsequent critic was to remark that Bismarck believed in a God who invariably agreed with him on all issues.
There is no question that the marriage was a very happy one. In fact, Bismarck's last words before dying in expressed the wish that he would once again see Johanna, who had passed away some years earlier. His politics during the s did not diverge substantially from those of a typical country squire.
If anything, his politics were more conservative. He believed in a Christian state that received its sanction ultimately from the deity. The existing social and political order was to be defended in order to prevent a Hobbesian chaos of all against all.
Given his views, Bismarck was welcomed as a member of the religious conservative circle around the brothers von Gerlach, who were stout defenders of the noble estate against the encroachments of bureaucratic centralization. Bismarck had nothing but sarcasm for aristocratic liberals who viewed England as a model for Prussia.
In he attended the Prussian United Diet, where his speeches against Jewish emancipation and contemporary liberalism gained him the reputation of a backwoods conservative, out of touch with the dynamic forces of his age.
Bismarck's response to the liberal revolution that swept through Europe in confirmed his image as a reactionary. He opposed any concessions to the liberals and expressed contempt for the king's willingness to bargain with the revolutionaries.
He even considered marching his peasants to Berlin to free Frederick William IV from the baneful influence of the rebels.
With other archconservatives, including Ernst Ludwig von Gerlach, he began contributing to the Kreuzzeitung newspaper as an organ of antirevolutionary sentiment. For Bismarck's future role, it is important to understand his analysis of the revolution.
He identified the forces of change as confined solely to the educated and propertied middle class. The vast majority of Prussians, however, were peasants and artisans, who, in Bismarck's view, were loyal monarchists. The task of the forces of order was to confirm the loyalty of these two groups by means of material concessions.Conservatism, Nationalism and Prussification (Unification of Germany by Otto von Bismarck) Essay Conservatism, Nationalism, and Prussification as driving forces of unification After the creation of the German Confederation, Otto von Bismarck, the Prussian representative in the union of German states, was determined to unite them into one.
Otto Von Bismarck was made Prime Minister and Foreign Minister of Prussia by I in He stayed in power until His conduct of foreign policy between and is one of the most fascinating and complex parts of the nineteenth century.
Otto Von Bismarck Essay Examples.
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Otto Von Bismarck Essay Examples.
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Nationalism is the aspiration of a people with a common language, culture and traditions to be unified.