Johnson vetoed the bill, and though Congress successfully overrode his veto and made it into law in April —the first time in history that Congress overrode a presidential veto of a major bill—even some Republicans thought another amendment was necessary to provide firm constitutional grounds for the new legislation. After the House and Senate both voted on the amendment by Juneit was submitted to the states for ratification. President Johnson made clear his opposition to the 14th Amendment as it made its way through the ratification process, but Congressional elections in late gave Republicans veto-proof majorities in both the House and Senate. Southern states also resisted, but Congress required them to ratify the 13th and 14th Amendments as a condition of regaining representation in Congress, and the ongoing presence of the Union Army in the former Confederate states ensured their compliance.
History - Brown v. Board of Education Re-enactment The Plessy Decision Although the Declaration of Independence stated that "All men are created equal," due to the institution of slavery, this statement was not to be grounded in law in the United States until after the Civil War and, arguably, not completely fulfilled for many years thereafter.
Inthe Thirteenth Amendment was ratified and finally put an end to slavery. Moreover, the Fourteenth Amendment strengthened the legal rights of newly freed slaves by stating, among other things, that no state shall deprive anyone of either "due process of law" or of the "equal protection of the law.
Despite these Amendments, African Americans were often treated differently than whites in many parts of the country, especially in the South.
In fact, many state legislatures enacted laws that led to the legally mandated segregation of the races. In other words, the laws of many states decreed that blacks and whites could not use the same public facilities, ride the same buses, attend the same schools, etc.
These laws came to be known as Jim Crow laws. Inan African-American man named Homer Plessy refused to give up his seat to a white man on a train in New Orleans, as he was required to do by Louisiana state law.
For this action he was arrested. Plessy, contending that the Louisiana law separating blacks from whites on trains violated the "equal protection clause" of the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.
Constitution, decided to fight his arrest in court. Byhis case had made it all the way to the United States Supreme Court. By a vote ofthe Supreme Court ruled against Plessy. In the case of Plessy v. Ferguson, Justice Henry Billings Brown, writing the majority opinion, stated that: If one race be inferior to the other socially, the Constitution of the United States cannot put them upon the same plane.
Sadly, as a result of the Plessy decision, in the early twentieth century the Supreme Court continued to uphold the legality of Jim Crow laws and other forms of racial discrimination. In the case of Cumming v. County Board of Educationfor instance, the Court refused to issue an injunction preventing a school board from spending tax money on a white high school when the same school board voted to close down a black high school for financial reasons.
Moreover, in Gong Lum v. The Road to Brown Note: Some of the case information is from Patterson, James T. Oxford University Press; New York, For about the first 20 years of its existence, it tried to persuade Congress and other legislative bodies to enact laws that would protect African Americans from lynchings and other racist actions.
Houston, together with Thurgood Marshall, devised a strategy to attack Jim Crow laws by striking at them where they were perhaps weakest—in the field of education. Maryland and Missouri ex rel Gaines v. After Houston returned to private practice inMarshall became head of the Fund and used it to argue the cases of Sweat v.
Painter and McLaurin v. Oklahoma Board of Regents of Higher Education. Maryland Disappointed that the University of Maryland School of Law was rejecting black applicants solely because of their race, beginning in Thurgood Marshall who was himself rejected from this law school because of its racial acceptance policies decided to challenge this practice in the Maryland court system.
Inthe Court of Appeals also ruled in favor of Murray and ordered the law school to admit him. Two years later, Murray graduated. Missouri ex rel Gaines v. The State of Missouri gave Gaines the option of either attending an all-black law school that it would build Missouri did not have any all-black law schools at this time or having Missouri help to pay for him to attend a law school in a neighboring state.
Byhis case reached the U. Supreme Court, and, in December of that year, the Court sided with him. The six-member majority stated that since a "black" law school did not currently exist in the State of Missouri, the "equal protection clause" required the state to provide, within its boundaries, a legal education for Gaines.
In other words, since the state provided legal education for white students, it could not send black students, like Gaines, to school in another state. He argued that the education that he was receiving in the "black" law school was not of the same academic caliber as the education that he would be receiving if he attended the "white" law school.
When the case reached the U.The Plessy Decision Although the Declaration of Independence stated that "All men are created equal," due to the institution of slavery, this statement was not to be grounded in law in the United States until after the Civil War (and, arguably, not completely fulfilled for many years thereafter).
One of the most infamous Supreme Court decisions in American history was handed down years ago, on May 18, Plessy alphabetnyc.com means the . The 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, ratified in , granted citizenship to all persons born or naturalized in the United States—including former slaves—and guaranteed all citizens.
The role of Plessy v. Ferguson in the history of the United States of America. Plessy v. Ferguson. Opinions. Syllabus ; View Case ; Petitioner Homer Adolph Plessy Louisiana enacted the Separate Car Act, which required separate railway cars for blacks and whites. In , Homer Plessy – who was seven-eighths Caucasian – agreed to participate in a test to challenge the Act.
Justice Brown conceded that the 14th. Plessy v. Ferguson: Plessy v. Ferguson, U.S. Supreme Court case that advanced the ‘separate but equal’ doctrine for assessing the constitutionality of racial segregation.